Create FTP user from SSH


Hits: 4813  

Wow! amazing ……

Do you want to create FTP user from linux command line SSH?

First you have to install FTP daemon like

vsftpd: http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/linux-creating-ftp-account-with-vsftpds.html

proftpd: http://www.cyberciti.biz/tips/linux-installing-configuring-proftpd-ftp-server.html

Use below commands to create FTP user in Web accessible location

# useradd -c ‘FTP USER svnlabs’ -m svnlabs -d /var/www/html/svnlabs

# chmod -R 775 /var/www/html/svnlabs

Upload Large Database Table to Server


Hits: 1960  

Hello Friends,

Sometime we want to upload large database table to server but phpMyAdmin have limit to upload SQL large *.sql files..

When we create database table “svnlabs” from mysql admin server make 3 files “svnlabs.frm”, “svnlabs.MYD” and “svnlabs.MYI”

These files are located at “/var/lib/mysql/svnlabs”.. we can check this location by phpinfo.php

svnlabs-table
svnlabs-table

We can upload all these 3 files to server using ftp or rsync.

Here source location may be either Windows or Linux and destination may be both.

We can upload zip of all 3 files “svnlabs.frm”, “svnlabs.MYD” and “svnlabs.MYI” for the table “svnlabs” and after upload to server; we can unzip to mysql folder “/var/lib/mysql/svnlabs”.

As files successfully uploaded to online server we can check new table “svnlabs” from phpMyAdmin.

Keep up good work…. 🙂

a2zVideo API


Hits: 2236  

Welcome to the a2zVideoAPI wiki!

This API supports video links to get video information like Embed Code, Video Thumb, Video Title, Video Description etc.

How to use a2zVideoAPI:

1. Download “api.php” from http://github.com/svnlabs/a2zVideoAPI

2. API require PHP with CURL extension.. Setup / Upload “api.php” to your web server

3. Modify “api.php” for API Video server
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, ‘http://www.svnlabs.com/a2zvideoapi/server.php’);

4. There are currently 3 formats for API response

a. HTML
b. XML
c. JSON

$post = array( ‘url’ => “http://www.flickr.com/photos/schwartzray/2483697739/”, ‘format’ => “html” );

5. You have to use valid video page url like “http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mXMf9GOzzOA” with format “html”, “xml” and “json”

6. Enjoy with svnlabs.com

Follow me….

Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/svnlabs
Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/svnlabs

Subscribe me….
Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/user/svnlabs
Feeds: http://blog.svnlabs.com/feed/

PHP Debug Log – Trace Errors


Hits: 3471  

Hello Friends,

I read some where “Quality is not a product.. it is a process 😉 ”

I think process is hard-work we do and product is final result we get.

But how we make our process to get a good product, as a LAMP developer I think track processes “Debug Log” is good sort of tool for monitoring programs.

Trouble shooting is quite simple with Log Files. Log file can be used with analysis tools, it’s possible to get a good idea of where errors are coming from, how often errors return.

Here you can see a simple PHP script to trace PHP programs…

debugLog.php
………………….

function debugLog($log, $text)
{
$log_dir = dirname($log);
if( !file_exists($log_dir) or !is_dir($log_dir) or !is_writable($log_dir) )
return false;

$write_mode = ‘w’;
if( file_exists($log) && is_file($log) && is_writable($log) )
$write_mode = ‘a’;

if( !$handle = fopen($log, $write_mode) )
return false;

if( fwrite($handle, $text. “\n”) == FALSE )
return false;

@fclose($handle);
}

Debugging Tools:

http://xdebug.org/
http://valgrind.org/
http://www.php-debugger.com/dbg/
http://pecl.php.net/package/apd
http://pear.php.net/package/Benchmark/
http://code.google.com/p/webgrind/

We can’t imagine processes without Log File 😉

Download youtube videos using PEAR


Hits: 2113  

PEAR have rich library to access web based resources easily…

<?php

$sv = new SVTube();
$sv->download(“D7cm-yu-CP0”, “svnlabs.flv”)

?>

Class: SVTube.php
——————————

<?php

require_once ‘HTTP/Client.php’;
require_once ‘HTTP/Request.php’;

class SVTube {

var $req;
var $debug = false;
var $auth = false;

function download ($video_id, $video_filename) {
$url = “http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=”.$video_id;
$this->req =& new HTTP_Request($url);
$response = $this->req->sendRequest();

if (PEAR::isError($response)) {
echo $response->getMessage().”\n”;
} else {
$page = $this->req->getResponseBody();

preg_match(‘/\&t=([^”]*)”/si’, $page, $match);

$html=html_entity_decode(urldecode(str_replace(‘\x’, ‘%’, $match[1])),ENT_QUOTES, “UTF-8”);

$echo = explode(“&”, $html);

$url = “http://www.youtube.com/get_video?el=detailpage&t=”.$echo[0].”&fmt=5&asv=3&video_id=”.$video_id;

if ($this->debug)
return $url.”\n”;

$req =& new HTTP_Request($url,array (“allowRedirects”=>true, “maxRedirects”=> 99));
$req->setMethod(HTTP_REQUEST_METHOD_GET);
$req->addHeader(“User-Agent”,”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.0)”);
$response = $req->sendRequest();

$req->getResponseBody();

if (PEAR::isError($response)) {
//echo $response->getMessage().”\n”;
return “Error: Failed to open video file on YouTube\n”;
} else {
if ($o = fopen ($video_filename, “w”)) {
fwrite($o,$req->getResponseBody());
fclose ($o);
return “Download complete! File: “.$video_filename.”\n”;
} else {
return “Error: Failed to open video-file\n”;
}
}

}
}

}
?>

Run Shell Commands from CGI-BIN


Hits: 6061  

Hey, here are some simple steps to run shell commands under cgi-bin using Apache web server (/var/www/cgi-bin), which is configured with cgi access.

Apache CGI allows files with executable permission in cgi-bin directory treated as application and run on web browsers.

We have to send the MIME type before outputting data to the web from shell script.

echo “Content-type: text/plain”
echo “”

Create a shell script to display linux manual pages on web clients:

svman.sh
————–

#!/bin/sh

echo Content-type: text/plain
echo ""
man $1 | col -b > /tmp/svman.txt
cat /tmp/svman.txt

# chmod ugo+x svman.sh

Test: here “ssh” is secure shell client (remote login program)

http://localhost/cgi-bin/svman.sh?ssh

Output:

NAME
  ssh -	secure shell client (remote login program)


SYNOPSIS
  ssh [-l login_name] hostname [command]

  ssh [-a] [-c idea|blowfish|des|3des|arcfour|none] [-e	escape_char]
  [-i identity_file] [-l login_name] [-n] [-k] [-V] [-o	option]	[-p port]
  [-q] [-P] [-t] [-v] [-x] [-C]	[-g] [-L port:host:hostport]
  [-R port:host:hostport] hostname [command]


DESCRIPTION

  Ssh (Secure Shell) a program for logging into	a remote machine and for exe-
  cuting commands in a remote machine.	It is intended to replace rlogin and
  rsh, and provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted
  hosts	over an	insecure network.  X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP	ports
  can also be forwarded	over the secure	channel.

  Ssh connects and logs	into the specified hostname.  The user must prove
  his/her identity to the remote machine using one of several methods.

  First, if the	machine	the user logs in from is listed	in /etc/hosts.equiv

  or /etc/shosts.equiv on the remote machine, and the user names are the same
  on both sides, the user is immediately permitted to log in.  Second, if
  .rhosts or .shosts exists in the user's home directory on the	remote
  machine and contains a line containing the name of the client	machine	and
  the name of the user on that machine,	the user is permitted to log in.
  This form of authentication alone is normally	not allowed by the server
  because it is	not secure.

  The second (and primary) authentication method is the	rhosts or hosts.equiv

  method combined with RSA-based host authentication.  It means	that if	the
  login	would be permitted by .rhosts, .shosts,	/etc/hosts.equiv, or
  /etc/shosts.equiv, and additionally it can verify the	client's host key
  (see $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts and /etc/ssh_known_hosts in the FILES section),
  only then login is permitted.	 This authentication method closes security
  holes	due to IP spoofing, DNS	spoofing and routing spoofing.	[Note to the
  administrator: /etc/hosts.equiv, .rhosts, and	the rlogin/rsh protocol	in
  general, are inherently insecure and should be disabled if security is
  desired.]

  As a third authentication method, ssh	supports RSA based authentication.
  The scheme is	based on public-key cryptography: there	are cryptosystems
  where	encryption and decryption are done using separate keys,	and it is not
  possible to derive the decryption key	from the encryption key.  RSA is one
  such system.	The idea is that each user creates a public/private key	pair
  for authentication purposes.	The server knows the public key, and only the
  user knows the private key.  The file	$HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys lists the
  authorized_keys file corresponds to the conventional .rhosts file, and has
  one key per line, though the lines can be very long).	 After this, the user
  can log in without giving the	password.  RSA authentication is much more
  secure than rhosts authentication.

  The most convenient way to use RSA authentication may	be with	an authenti-
  cation agent.	 See ssh-agent(1) for more information.

  As a fourth authentication method, ssh supports authentication through TIS
  authentication server. The idea is that ssh asks TIS authsrv(8) to authen-
  ticate the user. Sometime, usernames in the TIS database cannot be the same
  as the local users. This can be the case if the user authenticates itself
  with a smartcard or a	Digipass. In that case,	the username in	the database
  is usually known as the serial number	of the authentification	device.	The
  file /etc/sshd_tis.map contains the mapping between local users and their
  corresponding	name in	the TIS	database. If the file does not exist or	the
  user is not found, the corresponding name in the TIS database	is supposed
  to be	the same.

  If other authentication methods fail,	ssh prompts the	user for a password.
  The password is sent to the remote host for checking;	however, since all
  communications are encrypted,	the password cannot be seen by someone
  listening on the network.

  When the user's identity has been accepted by	the server, the	server either
  executes the given command, or logs into the machine and gives the user a
  normal shell on the remote machine.  All communication with the remote com-
  mand or shell	will be	automatically encrypted.

  If a pseudo-terminal has been	allocated (normal login	session), the user
  can disconnect with "~.", and	suspend	ssh with "~^Z".	 All forwarded con-
  nections can be listed with "~#", and	if the session blocks waiting for
  forwarded X11	or TCP/IP connections to terminate, it can be backgrounded
  with "~&" (this should not be	used while the user shell is active, as	it
  can cause the	shell to hang).	 All available escapes can be listed with
  "~?".

  A single tilde character can be sent as "~~" (or by following	the tilde by
  a character other than those described above).  The escape character must
  always follow	a newline to be	interpreted as special.	 The escape character
  can be changed in configuration files	or on the command line.

  If no	pseudo tty has been allocated, the session is transparent and can be
  used to reliably transfer binary data.  On most systems, setting the escape
  character to ``none''	will also make the session transparent even if a tty
  is used.

  The session terminates when the command or shell in on the remote machine
  exists and all X11 and TCP/IP	connections have been closed.  The exit
  status of the	remote program is returned as the exit status of ssh.

  If the user is using X11 (the	DISPLAY	environment variable is	set), the
  in Xauthority	on the server, and verify that any forwarded connections
  carry	this cookie and	replace	it by the real cookie when the connection is
  opened.  The real authentication cookie is never sent	to the server machine
  (and no cookies are sent in the plain).

  If the user is using an authentication agent,	the connection to the agent
  is automatically forwarded to	the remote side	unless disabled	on command
  line or in a configuration file.

  Forwarding of	arbitrary TCP/IP connections over the secure channel can be
  specified either on command line or in a configuration file.	One possible
  application of TCP/IP	forwarding is a	secure connection to an	electronic
  purse; another is going trough firewalls.

  Ssh automatically maintains and checks a database containing RSA-based
  identifications for all hosts	it has ever been used with.  The database is
  stored in .ssh/known_hosts in	the user's home	directory.  Additionally, the
  file /etc/ssh_known_hosts is automatically checked for known hosts.  Any
  new hosts are	automatically added to the user's file.	 If a host's identif-
  ication ever changes,	ssh warns about	this and disables password authenti-
  cation to prevent a trojan horse from	getting	the user's password.  Another
  purpose of this mechanism is to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks which
  could	otherwise be used to circumvent	the encryption.	 The StrictHostKey-

  Checking option (see below) can be used to prevent logins to machines	whose
  host key is not known	or has changed.



OPTIONS

  -a   Disables	forwarding of the authentication agent connection.  This may
       also be specified on a per-host basis in	the configuration file.

  -c idea|des|3des|blowfish|arcfour|none

       Selects the cipher to use for encrypting	the session. idea is used by
       default.	 It is believed	to be secure. des is the data encryption
       standard, but is	breakable by governments, large	corporations, and
       major criminal organizations.  3des (triple-des)	is encrypt-decrypt-
       encrypt triple with three different keys.  It is	presumably more
       secure than DES.	 It is used as default if both sites do	not support
       IDEA.  blowfish is an encryption	algorithm invented by Bruce Schneier.
       It uses 128 bit keys.  arcfour is an algorithm published	in the Usenet
       News in 1995.  This algorithm is	believed to be equivalent with the
       RC4 cipher from RSA Data	Security (RC4 is a trademark of	RSA Data
       Security).  This	is the fastest algorithm currently supported.  none

       disables	encryption entirely; it	is only	intended for debugging,	and
       it renders the connection insecure.

  -e ch|^ch|none
       Sets the	escape character for sessions with a pty (default: ~).	The
       escape character	is only	recognized at the beginning of a line.	The
       escape character	followed by a dot (.) closes the connection, followed
       tory.  Identity files may also be specified on a	per-host basis in the
       configuration file.  It is possible to have multiple -i options (and
       multiple	identities specified in	configuration files).

  -k   Disables	forwarding of the kerberos tickets.  This may also be speci-
       fied on a per-host basis	in the configuration file.

  -l login_name

       Specifies the user to log in as on the remote machine.  This may	also
       be specified on a per-host basis	in the configuration file.

  -n   Redirects stdin from /dev/null (actually, prevents reading from
       stdin).	This must be used when ssh is run in the background.  A	com-
       mon trick is to use this	to run X11 programs in a remote	machine.  For
       example,	"ssh -n	shadows.cs.hut.fi emacs	&" will	start an emacs on
       shadows.cs.hut.fi, and the X11 connection will be automatically for-
       warded over an encrypted	channel.  The ssh program will be put in the
       background.  (This does not work	if ssh needs to	ask for	a password or
       passphrase; see also the	-f option.)

  -o 'option'
       Can be used to give options in the format used in the config file.
       This is useful for specifying options for which there is	no separate
       command-line flag.  The option has the same format as a line in the
       configuration file.

  -p port

       Port to connect to on the remote	host.  This can	be specified on	a
       per-host	basis in the configuration file.

  -q   Quiet mode.  Causes all warning and diagnostic messages to be
       suppressed.  Only fatal errors are displayed.

  -P   Use non privileged port.	With this you cannot use rhosts	or rsarhosts
       authentications,	but it can be used to bypass some firewalls that dont
       allow privileged	source ports to	pass.

  -t   Force pseudo-tty	allocation.  This can be used to execute arbitary
       screen-based programs on	a remote machine, which	can be very useful
       e.g. when implementing menu services.

  -v   Verbose mode.  Causes ssh to print debugging messages about its pro-
       gress.  This is helpful in debugging connection,	authentication,	and
       configuration problems.

  -V   Print only version number and exit.

  -g   Allows remote hosts to connect local port forwarding ports. The
       default is that only localhost may connect to locally binded ports.

  -x   Disables	X11 forwarding.	 This can also be specified on a per-host

       allocating a socket to listen to	port on	the local side,	and whenever
       a connection is made to this port, the connection is forwarded over
       the secure channel, and a connection is made to host:hostport from the
       remote machine.	Port forwardings can also be specified in the confi-
       guration	file.  Only root can forward privileged	ports.

  -R port:host:hostport

       Specifies that the given	port on	the remote (server) host is to be
       forwarded to the	given host and port on the local side.	This works by
       allocating a socket to listen to	port on	the remote side, and whenever
       a connection is made to this port, the connection is forwarded over
       the secure channel, and a connection is made to host:hostport from the
       local machine.  Port forwardings	can also be specified in the confi-
       guration	file.  Privileged ports	can be forwarded only when logging in
       as root on the remote machine.


CONFIGURATION FILES

  Ssh obtains configuration data from the following sources (in	this order):
  command line options,	user's configuration file ($HOME/.ssh/config), and
  system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh_config).  For each parameter, the
  first	obtained value will be used.  The configuration	files contain sec-
  tions	bracketed by "Host" specifications, and	that section is	only applied
  for hosts that match one of the patterns given in the	specification.	The
  matched host name is the one given on	the command line.

  Since	the first obtained value for each parameter is used, more host-
  specific declarations	should be given	near the beginning of the file,	and
  general defaults at the end.

  The configuration file has the following format:

       Empty lines and lines starting with '#' are comments.

       Otherwise a line	is of the format "keyword arguments" or	"keyword =
       arguments".  The	possible keywords and their meanings are as follows
       (note that the configuration files are case-sensitive, but keywords
       are case-insensitive):



Host

       Restricts the following declarations (up	to the next Host keyword) to
       be only for those hosts that match one of the patterns given after the
       keyword.	 '*' and '?' can be as wildcards in the	patterns.  A single
       '*' as a	pattern	can be used to provide global defaults for all hosts.
       The host	is the hostname	argument given on the command line (i.e., the
       name is not converted to	a canonicalized	host name before matching).


  BatchMode
       If set to "yes",	passphrase/password querying will be disabled.	This
       option is useful	in scripts and other batch jobs	where you have no
       mand line. This is usefull to disable forwardings in config file	when
       you want	to make	second connection to host having forwardings in	con-
       fig file. Scp sets this on by default so	it will	not fail even if you
       have some forwardings set in config file.


  Compression
       Specifies whether to use	compression.  The argument must	be "yes" or
       "no".


  CompressionLevel

       Specifies the compression level to use if compression is	enable.	 The
       argument	must be	an integer from	1 (fast) to 9 (slow, best).  The
       default level is	6, which is good for most applications.	 The meaning
       of the values is	the same as in GNU GZIP.


  ConnectionAttempts
       Specifies the number of tries (one per second) to make before falling
       back to rsh or exiting.	The argument must be an	integer.  This may be
       useful in scripts if the	connection sometimes fails.


  EscapeChar
       Sets the	escape character (default: ~).	The escape character can also
       be set on the command line.  The	argument should	be a single charac-
       ter, '^'	followed by a letter, or ``none'' to disable the escape	char-
       acter entirely (making the connection transparent for binary data).


  FallBackToRsh
       Specifies that if connecting via	ssh fails due to a connection refused
       error (there is no sshd listening on the	remote host), rsh should
       automatically be	used instead (after a suitable warning about the ses-
       sion being unencrypted).	 The argument must be "yes" or "no".


  ForwardAgent

       Specifies whether the connection	to the authentication agent (if	any)
       will be forwarded to the	remote machine.	 The argument must be "yes"
       or "no".


  ForwardX11
       Specifies whether X11 connections will be automatically redirected
       over the	secure channel and DISPLAY set.	 The argument must be "yes"
       or "no".


  GatewayPorts

       Specifies that also remote hosts	may connect to locally forwarded
       command line and	in HostName specifications).


  IdentityFile
       Specifies the file from which the user's	RSA authentication identity
       is read (default	.ssh/identity in the user's home directory).  Addi-
       tionally, any identities	represented by the authentication agent	will
       be used for authentication.  The	file name may use the tilde syntax to
       refer to	a user's home directory.  It is	possible to have multiple
       identity	files specified	in configuration files;	all these identities
       will be tried in	sequence.


  KeepAlive
       Specifies whether the system should send	keepalive messages to the
       other side.  If they are	sent, death of the connection or crash of one
       of the machines will be properly	noticed.  However, this	means that
       connections will	die if the route is down temporarily, and some people
       find it annoying.

       The default is "yes" (to	send keepalives), and the client will notice
       if the network goes down	or the remote host dies.  This is important
       in scripts, and many users want it too.

       To disable keepalives, the value	should be set to "no" in both the
       server and the client configuration files.


  KerberosAuthentication

       Specifies whether Kerberos V5 authentication will be used.


  KerberosTgtPassing
       Specifies whether a Kerberos V5 TGT will	be forwarded to	the server.


  LocalForward
       Specifies that a	TCP/IP port on the local machine be forwarded over
       the secure channel to given host:port from the remote machine.  The
       first argument must be a	port number, and the second must be
       host:port.  Multiple forwardings	may be specified, and additional for-
       wardings	can be given on	the command line.  Only	the root can forward
       privileged ports.


  NumberOfPasswordPrompts
       Specifies number	of password prompts before giving up. The argument to
       must be integer.	Note that server also limits number of attempts
       (currently 5), so setting this larger doesn't have any effect. Default
       value is	one.



  Port Specifies the port number to connect on the remote host.	 Default is
       22.


  ProxyCommand

       Specifies the command to	use to connect to the server.  The command
       string extends to the end of the	line, and is executed with /bin/sh.
       In the command string, %h will be substituted by	the host name to con-
       nect and	%p by the port.	 The command can be basically anything,	and
       should read from	its stdin and write to its stdout.  It should eventu-
       ally connect an sshd server running on some machine, or execute "sshd
       -i" somewhere.  Host key	management will	be done	using the HostName of
       the host	being connected	(defaulting to the name	typed by the user).

       Note that ssh can also be configured to support the SOCKS system	using
       the --with-socks4 or --with-socks5 compile-time configuration option.


  RemoteForward
       Specifies that a	TCP/IP port on the remote machine be forwarded over
       the secure channel to given host:port from the local machine.  The
       first argument must be a	port number, and the second must be
       host:port.  Multiple forwardings	may be specified, and additional for-
       wardings	can be given on	the command line.  Only	the root can forward
       privileged ports.


  RhostsAuthentication
       Specifies whether to try	rhosts based authentication.  Note that	this
       declaration only	affects	the client side	and has	no effect whatsoever
       on security.  Disabling rhosts authentication may reduce	authentica-
       tion time on slow connections when rhosts authentication	is not used.
       Most servers do not permit RhostsAuthentication because it is not
       secure (see RhostsRSAAuthentication).  The argument to this keyword
       must be "yes" or	"no".


  RhostsRSAAuthentication

       Specifies whether to try	rhosts based authentication with RSA host
       authentication.	This is	the primary authentication method for most
       sites.  The argument must be "yes" or "no".


  RSAAuthentication
       Specifies whether to try	RSA authentication.  The argument to this
       keyword must be "yes" or	"no".  RSA authentication will only be
       attempted if the	identity file exists, or an authentication agent is
       running.


  StrictHostKeyChecking

  TISAuthentication
       Specifies whether to try	TIS authentication.  The argument to this
       keyword must be "yes" or	"no".


  UsePrivilegedPort
       Specifies whether to use	privileged port	when connecting	to other end.
       The default is yes if rhosts or rsarhosts authentications are enabled.


  User Specifies the user to log in as.	 This can be useful if you have	a
       different user name in different	machines.  This	saves the trouble of
       having to remember to give the user name	on the command line.


  UserKnownHostsFile

       Specifies a file	to use instead of $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts.


  UseRsh
       Specifies that rlogin/rsh should	be used	for this host.	It is possi-
       ble that	the host does not at all support the ssh protocol.  This
       causes ssh to immediately exec rsh. All other options (except Host-

       Name) are ignored if this has been specified.  The argument must	be
       "yes" or	"no".


  XAuthLocation
       Specifies the path to xauth program.


ENVIRONMENT

  Ssh will normally set	the following environment variables:

  DISPLAY
       The DISPLAY variable indicates the location of the X11 server.  It is
       automatically set by ssh	to point to a value of the form	"hostname:n"
       where hostname indicates	the host where the shell runs, and n is	an
       integer >= 1.  Ssh uses this special value to forward X11 connections
       over the	secure channel.	 The user should normally not set DISPLAY
       explicitly, as that will	render the X11 connection insecure (and	will
       require the user	to manually copy any required authorization cookies).

  HOME Set to the path of the user's home directory.

  LOGNAME

       Synonym for USER; set for compatibility with systems that use this
       variable.

       and server port number.

  SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND
       This will be the	original command line of given by protocol if forced
       command is run. It can be used to fetch arguments etc from the other
       end.

  SSH_TTY
       This is set to the name of the tty (path	to the device) associated
       with the	current	shell or command.  If the current session has no tty,
       this variable is	not set.

  TZ   The timezone variable is	set to indicate	the present timezone if	it
       was set when the	daemon was started (e.i., the daemon passes the	value
       on to new connections).

  USER Set to the name of the user logging in.

  Additionally,	ssh reads /etc/environment and $HOME/.ssh/environment, and
  adds lines of	the format VARNAME=value to the	environment.  Some systems
  may have still additional mechanisms for setting up the environment, such
  as /etc/default/login	on Solaris.


FILES

  $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts

       Records host keys for all hosts the user	has logged into	(that are not
       in /etc/ssh_known_hosts).  See sshd manual page.

  $HOME/.ssh/random_seed

       Used for	seeding	the random number generator.  This file	contains sen-
       sitive data and should read/write for the user and not accessible for
       others.	This file is created the first time the	program	is run and
       updated automatically.  The user	should never need to read or modify
       this file.

  $HOME/.ssh/identity
       Contains	the RSA	authentication identity	of the user.  This file	con-
       tains sensitive data and	should be readable by the user but not acces-
       sible by	others.	 It is possible	to specify a passphrase	when generat-
       ing the key; the	passphrase will	be used	to encrypt the sensitive part
       of this file using IDEA.

  $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub

       Contains	the public key for authentication (public part of the iden-
       tity file in human-readable form).  The contents	of this	file should
       be added	to $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys on all machines where you	wish
       to log in using RSA authentication.  This file is not sensitive and
       can (but	need not) be readable by anyone.  This file is never used
       automatically and is not	necessary; it is only provided for the con-

       modulus,	and comment fields, separated by spaces).  This	file is	not
       highly sensitive, but the recommended permissions are read/write	for
       the user, and not accessible by others.

  /etc/ssh_known_hosts

       Systemwide list of known	host keys.  This file should be	prepared by
       the system administrator	to contain the public host keys	of all
       machines	in the organization.  This file	should be world-readable.
       This file contains public keys, one per line, in	the following format
       (fields separated by spaces): system name, number of bits in modulus,
       public exponent,	modulus, and optional comment field.  When different
       names are used for the same machine, all	such names should be listed,
       separated by commas.  The format	is described on	the sshd manual	page.

       The canonical system name (as returned by name servers) is used by
       sshd to verify the client host when logging in; other names are needed
       because ssh does	not convert the	user-supplied name to a	canonical
       name before checking the	key, because someone with access to the	name
       servers would then be able to fool host authentication.

  /etc/ssh_config

       Systemwide configuration	file.  This file provides defaults for those
       values that are not specified in	the user's configuration file, and
       for those users who do not have a configuration file.  This file	must
       be world-readable.

  $HOME/.rhosts
       This file is used in .rhosts authentication to list the host/user
       pairs that are permitted	to log in.  (Note that this file is also used
       by rlogin and rsh, which	makes using this file insecure.) Each line of
       the file	contains a host	name (in the canonical form returned by	name
       servers), and then a user name on that host, separated by a space.
       This file must be owned by the user, and	must not have write permis-
       sions for anyone	else.  The recommended permission is read/write	for
       the user, and not accessible by others.

       Note that by default sshd will be installed so that it requires suc-
       cessful RSA host	authentication before permitting .rhosts authentica-
       tion.  If your server machine does not have the client's	host key in
       /etc/ssh_known_hosts, you can store it in $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts.  The
       easiest way to do this is to connect back to the	client from the
       server machine using ssh; this will automatically add the host key in
       $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts.

  $HOME/.shosts

       This file is used exactly the same way as .rhosts.  The purpose for
       having this file	is to be able to use rhosts authentication with	ssh
       without permitting login	with rlogin or rsh.

  /etc/hosts.equiv
       This file is used during	.rhosts	authentication.	 It contains canoni-
       cal hosts names,	one per	line (the full format is described on the

  $HOME/.ssh/rc

       Commands	in this	file are executed by ssh when the user logs in just
       before the user's shell (or command) is started.	 See the sshd manual
       page for	more information.


INSTALLATION

  Ssh is normally installed as suid root.  It needs root privileges only for
  rhosts authentication	(rhosts	authentication requires	that the connection
  must come from a privileged port, and	allocating such	a port requires	root
  privileges).	It also	needs to be able to read /etc/ssh_host_key to perform
  RSA host authentication.  It is possible to use ssh without root
  privileges, but rhosts authentication	will then be disabled. Ssh drops any
  extra	privileges immediately after the connection to the remote host has
  been made.

  Considerable work has	been put into making ssh secure.  However, if you
  find a security problem, please report it immediately	to <ssh-
  bugs@cs.hut.fi>.



AUTHOR

  Tatu Ylonen <ylo@ssh.fi>

  Information about new	releases, mailing lists, and other related issues can
  be found from	the ssh	WWW home page at http://www.cs.hut.fi/ssh.


SEE ALSO
  sshd(8), ssh-keygen(1), ssh-agent(1),	ssh-add(1), scp(1), make-ssh-known-
  hosts(1), rlogin(1), rsh(1), telnet(1)

Create WebThumb using LAMP


Hits: 3202  

We have to install opera/firefox  first on server.

Then install Xvfb for Xvfb virtual framebuffer

html2image.sh
……………………….

#! /bin/sh

/etc/init.d/xvfb start

export DISPLAY=:7

DISPLAY=:7 opera –remote ‘openURL(‘$1′)’ &

sleep 20

DISPLAY=:7  import -window root $2

/etc/init.d/xvfb stop

Uses:
# ./html2image.sh  http://www.svnlabs.com   webthumb/svnlabs.png

Open FireFox in Xvfb: firefox.sh
#!/bin/sh
mozilla-firefox -a firefox -remote ‘openURL(‘$1′, new-tab)’ || mozilla-firefox $1 &

Uses:
# ./firefox.sh http://www.svnlabs.com

Second attempt

# wget http://mirror.aarnet.edu.au/pub/opera/linux/1011/final/en/i386/shared/opera-10.11.gcc4.shared.qt3.i386.rpm

# rpm -ivh opera-10.11.gcc4.shared.qt3.i386.rpm

# yum install tcl-devel libpng-devel libjpeg-devel ghostscript-devel bzip2-devel freetype-devel libtiff-devel

# wget ftp://ftp.fifi.org/pub/ImageMagick/ImageMagick-6.6.2-7.tar.gz

# tar zxvf ImageMagick-6.6.2-7.tar.gz; cd ImageMagick-6.6.2-7

# ./configure –prefix=/usr/local –with-bzlib=yes –with-fontconfig=yes –with-freetype=yes –with-gslib=yes –with-gvc=yes –with-jpeg=yes –with-jp2=yes –with-png=yes –with-tiff=yes

configure: error: no acceptable C compiler found in $PATH

# yum groupinstall “Development Tools” -y

# ./configure –prefix=/usr/local –with-bzlib=yes –with-fontconfig=yes –with-freetype=yes –with-gslib=yes –with-gvc=yes –with-jpeg=yes –with-jp2=yes –with-png=yes –with-tiff=yes

# make clean

# make

# make install

Install xvfb
…………

# yum update

# yum install xvfb (No package xvfb available.)

http://corpocrat.com/2008/08/19/how-to-install-xvfb-x11-server-in-linux-server/

TRy with # yum install Xvfb
or # yum install xorg-x11-Xvfb

# yum install xorg-x11-fonts*

# vi /etc/rc.d/init.d/xvfbd (http://eldapo.lembobrothers.com/2009/05/27/an-xvfb-init-script/)

# chmod a+x /etc/rc.d/init.d/xvfb

# chkconfig –add xvfb

# /etc/init.d/xvfb start (start xBuffer)

Allow remote vnc for xBuffer
http://www.karlrunge.com/x11vnc/faq.html#faq-xvfb
http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/VNC-Server
http://thelinuxguru.blogspot.com/2008/02/installing-x11vnc-on-fedora-core.html
http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/VNC-Server

# wget http://space.dl.sourceforge.net/project/libvncserver/x11vnc/0.9.10/x11vnc-0.9.10.tar.gz

# tar zxvf x11vnc-0.9.10.tar.gz; cd x11vnc-0.9.10

# ./configure && make && make install

Error…

*** A working X window system build environment is required to build ***
x11vnc. Make sure any required X development packages are installed.
If they are installed in non-standard locations, one can use the
–x-includes=DIR and –x-libraries=DIR configure options or set the
CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS environment variables to indicate where the X
window system header files and libraries may be found. On 64+32 bit
machines you may need to point to lib64 or lib32 directories to pick up
the correct word size.

If you want to build x11vnc without X support (e.g. for -rawfb use only
or for native Mac OS X), specify the –without-x configure option.

# rpm -q vnc-server

# yum install vnc-server

# chkconfig vncserver on

…………………………….

# wget http://dag.wieers.com/rpm/packages/x11vnc/x11vnc-0.9.3-1.el5.rf.i386.rpm

# yum install x11vnc-0.9.3-1.el5.rf.i386.rpm

………………………………

# yum install vnc

# yum groupinstall “GNOME Desktop Environment”

# useradd svnlabs; passwd svnlabs

#

At local linux box

# vncviewer -via sandeep@179.28.78.170 localhost:1

Other method

# /etc/init.d/xvfb status

# x11vnc -usepw -display :5

# ssh -C -t -L 5900:localhost:5900 [179.28.78.170] ‘x11vnc -usepw -localhost -display :5’

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

# DISPLAY=:5 opera –remote ‘openURL(http://www.yahoo.com)’ &
# DISPLAY=:5 import -window root /var/www/vhosts/trueweddingjunkie.com/httpdocs/sv.jpg

ERROR: ld.so: object ‘libjvm.so’ from LD_PRELOAD cannot be preloaded: ignored.
ERROR: ld.so: object ‘libawt.so’ from LD_PRELOAD cannot be preloaded: ignored.
/usr/lib/opera/opera: error while loading shared libraries: libqt-mt.so.3: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo

It means that java plugin was not found.

ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo

Installing Java
……………

http://rahulsoni.in/2009/11/red5-server-installation-on-redhat-centos-linux/
http://cookingandcoding.com/2009/11/11/install-red5-xuggler-on-centos-5-x/

# wget -O /usr/local/src/jdk-6u20-linux-i586-rpm.bin wget http://cds.sun.com/is-bin/INTERSHOP.enfinity/WFS/CDS-CDS_Developer-Site/en_US/-/USD/VerifyItem-Start/jdk-6u20-linux-i586-rpm.bin?BundledLineItemUUID=IiiJ_hCuVakAAAEpBhRCxnzq&OrderID=5OSJ_hCuIasAAAEp.RNCxnzq&ProductID=guBIBe.oc_wAAAEnaDJHqPYe&FileName=/jdk-6u20-linux-i586-rpm.bin
# chmod 777 jdk-6u20-linux-i586-rpm.bin
# ./jdk-6u20-linux-i586-rpm.bin

Please enter “yes” or “no”.
Do you agree to the above license terms? [yes or no]
yes
Unpacking…
Checksumming…
Extracting…
UnZipSFX 5.50 of 17 February 2002, by Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs@lists.wku.edu).
inflating: jdk-6u20-linux-i586.rpm
inflating: sun-javadb-common-10.5.3-0.2.i386.rpm
inflating: sun-javadb-core-10.5.3-0.2.i386.rpm
inflating: sun-javadb-client-10.5.3-0.2.i386.rpm
inflating: sun-javadb-demo-10.5.3-0.2.i386.rpm
inflating: sun-javadb-docs-10.5.3-0.2.i386.rpm
inflating: sun-javadb-javadoc-10.5.3-0.2.i386.rpm
Preparing… ########################################### [100%]
1:jdk ########################################### [100%]
Unpacking JAR files…
rt.jar…
jsse.jar…
charsets.jar…
tools.jar…
localedata.jar…
plugin.jar…
javaws.jar…
deploy.jar…
error: %post(jdk-1.6.0_20-fcs.i586) scriptlet failed, exit status 5
Installing JavaDB
Preparing… ########################################### [100%]
1:sun-javadb-common ########################################### [ 17%]
2:sun-javadb-core ########################################### [ 33%]
3:sun-javadb-client ########################################### [ 50%]
4:sun-javadb-demo ########################################### [ 67%]
5:sun-javadb-docs ########################################### [ 83%]
6:sun-javadb-javadoc ########################################### [100%]

Java(TM) SE Development Kit 6 successfully installed.

Product Registration is FREE and includes many benefits:
* Notification of new versions, patches, and updates
* Special offers on Sun products, services and training
* Access to early releases and documentation

Product and system data will be collected. If your configuration
supports a browser, the Sun Product Registration form for
the JDK will be presented. If you do not register, none of
this information will be saved. You may also register your
JDK later by opening the register.html file (located in
the JDK installation directory) in a browser.

For more information on what data Registration collects and
how it is managed and used, see:
http://java.sun.com/javase/registration/JDKRegistrationPrivacy.html

Press Enter to continue…..

Done.

# opera
ERROR: ld.so: object ‘libjvm.so’ from LD_PRELOAD cannot be preloaded: ignored.
ERROR: ld.so: object ‘libawt.so’ from LD_PRELOAD cannot be preloaded: ignored.
/usr/lib/opera/opera: error while loading shared libraries: libqt-mt.so.3: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

# yum install libqt-mt.so.3

http://schmidi2.blog.com/2008/05/17/opera-libjvmso-libawtso-cannot-be-preloaded-ignored-libjavaso-no-such-file-or-directory/

http://www.fedoraforum.org/forum/printthread.php?t=185372
http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=en&sl=zh-CN&u=http://hi.baidu.com/dadazh/blog/category/unix%26%252347%253Blinux&prev=/search%3Fq%3DCentOS%2B%252B%2B%2522%2BMake%2Bsure%2Bany%2Brequired%2BX%2Bdevelopment%2Bpackages%2Bare%2Binstalled.%2522%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26hs%3DAfU%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official&rurl=translate.google.com&twu=1&usg=ALkJrhhYBLXntjTpj9tHTvymID9ULRiSmA

# yum install libX11-devel

1024X768

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

# x11vnc -usepw -display :5
28/06/2010 22:35:46 -usepw: found /root/.vnc/passwd
28/06/2010 22:35:46 x11vnc version: 0.9.10 lastmod: 2010-04-28 pid: 15437
28/06/2010 22:35:46 This x11vnc was built without X11 support (-rawfb only).

28/06/2010 22:35:46 ***************************************
28/06/2010 22:35:46 *** XOpenDisplay failed (:5)

*** x11vnc was unable to open the X DISPLAY: “:5”, it cannot continue.
*** There may be “Xlib:” error messages above with details about the failure.

Some tips and guidelines:

** An X server (the one you wish to view) must be running before x11vnc is
started: x11vnc does not start the X server. (however, see the -create
option if that is what you really want).

** You must use -display , -OR- set and export your $DISPLAY
environment variable to refer to the display of the desired X server.
– Usually the display is simply “:0” (in fact x11vnc uses this if you forget
to specify it), but in some multi-user situations it could be “:1”, “:2”,
or even “:137”. Ask your administrator or a guru if you are having
difficulty determining what your X DISPLAY is.

** Next, you need to have sufficient permissions (Xauthority)
to connect to the X DISPLAY. Here are some Tips:

– Often, you just need to run x11vnc as the user logged into the X session.
So make sure to be that user when you type x11vnc.
– Being root is usually not enough because the incorrect MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE
file may be accessed. The cookie file contains the secret key that
allows x11vnc to connect to the desired X DISPLAY.
– You can explicitly indicate which MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE file should be used
by the -auth option, e.g.:
x11vnc -auth /home/someuser/.Xauthority -display :0
x11vnc -auth /tmp/.gdmzndVlR -display :0
you must have read permission for the auth file.
See also ‘-auth guess’ and ‘-findauth’ discussed below.

** If NO ONE is logged into an X session yet, but there is a greeter login
program like “gdm”, “kdm”, “xdm”, or “dtlogin” running, you will need
to find and use the raw display manager MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE file.
Some examples for various display managers:

gdm: -auth /var/gdm/:0.Xauth
-auth /var/lib/gdm/:0.Xauth
kdm: -auth /var/lib/kdm/A:0-crWk72
-auth /var/run/xauth/A:0-crWk72
xdm: -auth /var/lib/xdm/authdir/authfiles/A:0-XQvaJk
dtlogin: -auth /var/dt/A:0-UgaaXa

Sometimes the command “ps wwwwaux | grep auth” can reveal the file location.

Starting with x11vnc 0.9.9 you can have it try to guess by using:

-auth guess

(see also the x11vnc -findauth option.)

Only root will have read permission for the file, and so x11vnc must be run
as root (or copy it). The random characters in the filenames will of course
change and the directory the cookie file resides in is system dependent.

See also: http://www.karlrunge.com/x11vnc/faq.html

Create ZIP archives with PHP script and PEAR class


Hits: 3118  

We can use PEAR to process zip files in PHP using Archive_Zip….

First set PEAR path in php include path using set_include_path

Make Zipped file

<?php
include (‘Archive/Zip.php’);        // include PEAR ZIP package

$obj = new Archive_Zip(‘test.zip’);  // zipped file name

$files = array(‘svnlabs/1.gif’,
svnlabs/resume.doc’,
svnlabs/invoice.xls’);   // files add to zip

if ($obj->create($files)) {
echo ‘Files zipped successfully!’;
} else {
echo ‘Error in file zipping’;
}
?>
List Zip file elements

<?php
include (‘Archive/Zip.php’);        // include PEAR ZIP package

$obj = new Archive_Zip(‘test.zip’); // Input zip file

$files = $obj->listContent();       // zip information

foreach ($files as $f) {
foreach ($f as $s => $v) {
echo “$s: $v\r\n”;
}
echo “\r\n”;
}
?>
I really enjoyed programming with PEAR…

Stream MP3 using PHP – m3u


Hits: 6583  

M3U is a computer file format that stores multimedia playlists.

<?php

function m3u_stream($dir) {

$mp3=””;
$siteurl=”http://www.domain.com/mp3/”;

$h1 = opendir($dir);

while ($file = readdir($h1))
{

if ($file == ‘.’ || $file == ‘..’) continue;
$mp3.=$siteurl.basename($dir).”/”.$file.”\r\n”;

}

closedir($h1);

return $mp3;

}

$folder = “svnlabs”;

file_put_contents($folder.”.m3u”, m3u_stream($_SERVER[“DOCUMENT_ROOT”].”/mp3/”.$folder.”/”));

?>

Here “svnlabs” is a folder where all mp3 files exists… this program will create svnlabs.m3u playlist file using php script.

svnlabs.m3u file contents all mp3 links with domain “http://www.domain.com/mp3/”

svnlabs.m3u
………………



……………………

Now http://www.domain.com/mp3/svnlabs.m3u can be used for streaming mp3 from www.domain.com

How can we use PHP to access shared library functions?


Hits: 4132  

PHP function dl()Loads a PHP extension at runtime

<?php
// Example loading an extension based on OS
if (!extension_loaded('svnlabs')) {
if (
strtoupper(substr(PHP_OS, 0, 3)) === 'WIN') {
dl('php_svnlabs.dll');
} else {
dl('svnlabs.so');
}
}

// Or, the PHP_SHLIB_SUFFIX constant is available as of PHP 4.3.0
if (!extension_loaded('svnlabs')) {
$prefix = (PHP_SHLIB_SUFFIX === 'dll') ? 'php_' : '';
dl($prefix . 'svnlabs.' . PHP_SHLIB_SUFFIX);
}
?>


We can use linux “nm” or “objdump” command to list symbols in object files…

# nm -C svnlabs.so
# objdump -s svnlabs.so